Intel Per Core Voltage

Intel Per Core Voltage allows you to set a specific target voltage for every individual core inside your CPU.

per core voltage alder lake bios

The feature was first introduced on Skylake-X high-end desktop in 2017. The feature only came to mainstream desktop in 2021 with Alder Lake. While it may seem like a straightforward feature, the name is slightly misleading.

skylake-x per core voltage

Per Core Voltage Configuration

Per Core Voltage allows the user to assign a different static or adaptive voltage to each CPU core, depending on the platform topology. On high-end desktop or workstation CPUs which use FIVR to supply the voltage to the cores, you can set an individual static or adaptive voltage. However, on mainstream desktop where a single VccIA or VccCore voltage rail supplies all cores with the same voltage, you can only set a per core adaptive voltage.

  • In case of the static mode, each core’s voltage is applied across all scenarios and CPU ratios.
  • In case of adaptive mode, each core’s voltage maps to the CPU’s “OC Ratio.” The OC Ratio is the highest configured CPU ratio across all cores (and ring) and settings.

In adaptive voltage mode, each CPU core will have its own unique V/F curve interpolated from the per core set voltage and the shared OC ratio. You can also combine this feature with the Per Core Ratio Limit feature.

Do remember that when we set a Per Core Ratio Limit, counter-intuitively, this Ratio doesn’t act as a core-specific OC Ratio but as a means to limit what parts of the V/F curve can be used. In the example below, where 52X is mapped to 1.40V, if we set the Per-Core Ratio Limit to 51X, the CPU core will boost up to 5.1 GHz at a voltage interpolated between 52X at 1.40V and 48X at 1.30V.

sapphire rapids per core ratio limit

The Per Core Adaptive Voltage is most useful to give some cores a little extra voltage at the top end of the voltage frequency curve. The Per Core Static Voltage is most useful if you want to set a static ratio for each core and find the lowest stable voltage for a given frequency to maximize power efficiency.