SkatterBencher #51: Intel Core i5-13600K Overclocked to 6200MHz

We overclock the Intel Core i5-13600K up to 6200 MHz with the ASUS ROG Strix Z790-A Gaming WiFi D4 motherboard and EK custom loop water cooling.

As everyone knows by now, Raptor Lake processors provide a lot of room for performance tuning and overclocking, especially when paired with water cooling. By pairing the Core i5 with a Z790 DDR4 motherboard, I hope to illustrate that you don’t need high-performance DDR5 memory to squeeze significantly more performance out of your Raptor Lake CPU.

I hope you enjoy the article.

Intel Core i5-13600K: Introduction

The Intel Core i5-13600K is part of the 13th generation Intel Core processor lineup.

Intel Raptor Lake builds on top of the performance hybrid architecture introduced with 12th gen Alder Lake. So, it also features Performance P-Cores and Efficient E-cores. Like Alder Lake, it is built on the Intel 7 process technology, formerly known as 10nm Enhanced SuperFin (ESF). While it may sound like Raptor Like is not much different from its predecessor, the spec sheet reads quite impressive.

Compared to its Core i5-12600K predecessor, launched one year ago, the 13600K has a 200 MHz higher turbo boost frequency and four additional threads while costing the same.

In this video, we will cover four different overclocking strategies:

  • First, we unleash the Turbo Boost 2.0 limits and enable XMP 2.0
  • Second, we overclock using ASUS AI Overclocking technology
  • Third, we get into the manual tuning of a Raptor Lake processor
  • Lastly, finetune our manual overclock using Intel’s OCTVB technology
13600k overclocking strategies

However, before we jump into overclocking, let us quickly review the hardware and benchmarks used in this video.

Intel Core i5-13600K: Platform Overview

The system we’re overclocking today consists of the following hardware.

ItemSKUPrice (USD)
CPUIntel Core i5-13600K330
MotherboardASUS ROG Strix Z790-A Gaming WiFi D4380
CPU CoolingEK-Quantum Velocity2
EK-Quantum Power Kit Velocity² 360
137
686
Fan ControllerElmorLabs Easy Fan Controller ElmorLabs EVC2SX20 32
MemoryG.SKILL Trident Z DDR4-4266 CL19 16GB250
Power SupplyEnermax MAXREVO 1500W370
Graphics CardASUS ROG Strix RTX 2080 TI880
StorageAORUS RGB 512 GB M.2-2280 NVME120
ChassisOpen Benchtable V2200

ElmorLabs EFC & EVC2

I explained how I use ElmorLabs products in SkatterBencher #34. By connecting the EFC to the EVC2 device, I monitor the ambient temperature (EFC), water temperature (EFC), and fan duty cycle (EFC). I include the measurements in my Prime95 stability test results.

I also use the ElmorLabs EFC to map the radiator fan curve to the water temperature. Without going into too many details: I have attached an external temperature sensor from the water in the loop to the EFC. Then, I use the low/high setting to map the fan curve from 25 to 40 degrees water temperature. I use this configuration for all overclocking strategies.

The main takeaway from this configuration is that it gives us a good indicator of whether the cooling solution is saturated.

Suppose the CPU is at TjMax, and the water temperature exceeds 40 degrees Celsius. In that case, it means the fans are at maximum speed, and thus the cooling solution is saturated. Improving the cooling solution by adding radiators or changing to more powerful fans would be the right action.

Suppose the CPU is at TjMax and the water temperature is below 40 degrees Celsius. In that case, it means the cooling solution is not saturated. Therefore, to improve the CPU temperature, you may enhance the thermal transfer of the CPU heat into the loop by changing the thermal paste, delidding, or changing the water block.

Intel Core i5-13600K: Benchmark Software

We use Windows 11 and the following benchmark applications to measure performance and ensure system stability.

Intel Core i5-13600K: Stock Performance

Before starting overclocking, we must check the system performance at default settings.

Please note that out of the box, the Strix Z790-A fully unleashes the Turbo Boost 2.0 power limits. So, to check the performance at default settings, you must enter the BIOS and

  • Switch to Advanced Mode
  • Go to the Ai Tweaker menu
  • Set ASUS MultiCore Enhancement to Disabled – Enforce All Limits

Then save and exit the BIOS.

The default Turbo Boost 2.0 parameters for the Core i5-13600K are as follows:

  • PL1: 181W
  • PL2: 181W
  • Tau: 33sec
  • ICCMax: 488A

Here is the benchmark performance at stock:

  • SuperPI 4M: 30.479 seconds
  • Geekbench 5 (single): 1,872 points
  • Geekbench 5 (multi): 12,617 points
  • Cinebench R23 Single: 1,998 points
  • Cinebench R23 Multi: 24,188 points
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Single: 831.0 points
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Multi: 9,839.5 points
  • V-Ray 5: 15,988 vsamples
  • AI Benchmark: 3,563 points
  • 3DMark Night Raid: 76,489 points
  • CS:GO FPS Bench: 611.41 fps
  • Tom Raider: 177 fps
  • Final Fantasy XV: 190.52 fps
13600k stock benchmark performance

Here are the 3DMark CPU Profile scores at stock

  • CPU Profile 1 Thread: 1,103
  • CPU Profile 2 Threads: 2,202
  • CPU Profile 4 Threads: 4,363
  • CPU Profile 8 Threads: 7,321
  • CPU Profile 16 Threads: 9,846
  • CPU Profile Max Threads: 10,445
13600k stock 3dmark cpu profile performance

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX2 enabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5082 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 3900 MHz with 1.097 volts. The average CPU temperature is 80 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 26.0 and 36.2 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 175.7 watts.

13600k stock prime95 avx

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX disabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5100 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 3900 MHz with 1.120 volts. The average CPU temperature is 72 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 26.0 and 35.5 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 144.5 watts.

13600k stock prime95 no avx

Now, let us try our first overclocking strategy.

However, before we get going, make sure to locate the CMOS Clear button

Pressing the Clear CMOS button will reset all your BIOS settings to default which is helpful if you want to start your BIOS configuration from scratch. However, it does not delete any of the BIOS profiles previously saved. The Clear CMOS button is located on the rear IO panel.

OC Strategy #1: Unleashed Turbo Boost 2.0 + XMP 2.0

In our first overclocking strategy, we take advantage of unleashing the Turbo Boost 2.0 power limits and Intel XMP 2.0.

Intel Turbo Boost 2.0

Intel Turbo Boost 2.0 Technology allows the processor cores to run faster than the base operating frequency. Turbo Boost is available when the processor works below its rated power, temperature, and current specification limits. The ultimate advantage is opportunistic performance improvements in both multi-threaded and single-threaded workloads.

The turbo boost algorithm works according to a proprietary EWMA formula. This stands for Exponentially Weighted Moving Average.

There are 3 parameters to consider: PL1, PL2, and Tau.

  • Power Limit 1, or PL1, is the threshold the average power will not exceed. Historically, this has always been set equal to Intel’s advertised TDP. PL1 should not be set higher than the thermal solution cooling limits.
  • Power Limit 2, or PL2, is the maximum power the processor can use for a limited amount of time.
  • Tau, in seconds, is the time window for calculating the average power consumption. The CPU will reduce the CPU frequency if the average power consumed is higher than PL1.

Turbo Boost 2.0 technology is available on Raptor Lake as it’s the primary driver of performance over the base frequency.

Similar to Alder Lake, but a significant change from any previous Intel Core processors is that, at least for the K-SKU CPUs, PL1 is by default equal to PL2. This differs from before, where PL1 would equal the TDP, and PL2 would range from 200 to 250W. This change effectively means that Intel has enabled near-unlimited peak turbo by default!

For the 13600K, the maximum power limit is set at 181W.

The maximum performance is, therefore, entirely limited by the capabilities of your cooling solution. If your cooling solution is insufficient, the processor will reduce the operating frequency at the maximum allowed temperature or TjMax. For Raptor Lake CPUs, that’s at 100 degrees Celsius.

An easy ASUS MultiCore Enhancement option on ASUS motherboards allows you to unleash the Turbo Boost power limits. Set the option to Enabled – Remove All Limits and enjoy maximum performance.

Adjusting the power limits is strictly not considered overclocking, as we don’t change any of the CPU’s thermal, electrical, or frequency parameters. Intel provides the Turbo Boost parameters as guidance to motherboard vendors and system integrators to ensure their designs enable the base performance of the CPU. Better motherboard designs, thermal solutions, and system configurations can facilitate peak performance for longer.

Intel Extreme Memory Profile 2.0

Intel Extreme Memory Profile, or XMP, is an Intel technology that lets you automatically overclock the system memory to improve system performance. It extends the standard JEDEC specification and allows a memory vendor to program different settings onto the memory stick. If your motherboard supports XMP, you can enable the higher performance with a single BIOS setting. So, it saves you from lots of manual configuration.

We discussed the Intel XMP Technology at length in another page on this blog titled “Intel Extreme Memory Profile Explained”. Check it out if you want additional information.

BIOS Settings & Benchmark Results

Upon entering the BIOS

  • Set X.M.P. to Enabled
  • Switch to Advanced Mode
  • Go to the Ai Tweaker menu
  • Set ASUS MultiCore Enhancement to Enabled – Remove All Limits

Then save and exit the BIOS.

We re-ran the benchmarks and checked the performance increase compared to the default operation.

  • SuperPI 4M: +0.81%
  • Geekbench 5 (single): +7.05%
  • Geekbench 5 (multi): +18.07%
  • Cinebench R23 Single: +0.45%
  • Cinebench R23 Multi: +0.43%
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Single: +0.05%
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Multi: +1.03%
  • V-Ray 5: +2.75%
  • AI Benchmark: +5.19%
  • 3DMark Night Raid: +2.77%
  • CS:GO FPS Bench: +0.09%
  • Tomb Raider: +13.56%
  • Final Fantasy XV: +5.48%
13600k unlocked turbo benchmark performance

Here are the 3DMark CPU Profile scores.

  • CPU Profile 1 Thread: +0.00%
  • CPU Profile 2 Threads: +0.09%
  • CPU Profile 4 Threads: +0.32%
  • CPU Profile 8 Threads: +0.16%
  • CPU Profile 16 Threads: +0.11%
  • CPU Profile Max Threads: +0.08%
13600k unlocked turbo 3dmark cpu profile performance

As expected, since we’re not increasing the frequency of the CPU cores, the performance improvement is relatively limited. That said, improving the memory performance by using XMP 3.0 does help in memory-sensitive benchmark applications. We see the highest performance improvement of +18.07% in Geekbench 5.

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX2 enabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5100 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 3900 MHz with 1.103 volts. The average CPU temperature is 81 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 26.0 and 36.0 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 184.7 watts.

13600k unlocked turbo prime95 avx

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX disabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5100 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 3900 MHz with 1.114 volts. The average CPU temperature is 75 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 25.8 and 35.0 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 157.5 watts.

13600k unlocked turbo prime95 no avx

OC Strategy #2: AI Overclocking + XMP 2.0

In our second overclocking strategy, we use the Asus AI Overclocking feature integrated into the ASUS ROG BIOS.

ASUS AI Overclocking

For many years board vendors have tried to implement automatic overclocking features in their BIOS for more straightforward performance enhancement. This has always been a mixed bag, as most preset OC profiles are overly optimistic in frequency target or overly generous with the voltage selection. So often, you would end up with a slightly unstable or overheating system.

ASUS AI overclocking uses a unique strategy for automatic overclocking. Instead of working with preset frequency and voltage profiles, the system will monitor the CPU and cooling system throughout an initial testing phase. Based on its findings, it will then predict the optimal settings. The system will automatically guide the overclocking process and adjust voltages and frequency to match your cooling system.

The better your cooling, the higher your AI overclock.

ASUS introduced AI Overclocking on its Z490 ROG motherboards as a next-generation automatic overclocking technology. I’ve been using it as an OC Strategy since SkatterBencher #10, where I overclocked the Core i9-10900K processor.

There are three steps to enabling AI overclocking. First, reset the BIOS to default settings. Then, reboot and enter the operating system. Run a couple of heavy workloads, such as Cinebench R23, Realbench, or Intel XTU, for 10 to 30 minutes. Then return to the BIOS and enter the AI OC Guide menu from the top. Make sure to read through the explanation and click Enable AI when ready.

In addition to automatic overclocking, AI Overclocking provides a lot of advanced information and suggestions in the AI Features menu. The information includes:

  • P0 VID and SP values for the P-cores and E-cores
  • Turbo Ratio suggested overclocking parameters
  • Adaptive Voltage and AC loadline suggested parameters

The SP value is based on the combination of maximum boost frequency, temperature, and P0 VID. Generally, it indicates the quality of a particular core. A higher SP value would indicate a better-quality core with superior overclocking capabilities, though it’s not an exact science. The overclocking suggestions are based on a continued evaluation of your CPU thermal solution.

After enabling AI Overclock, the following settings have changed:

  • Performance Core Ratio: AI Optimized
    • 1-Active P-core Ratio: 61X -> 58X (OCTVB)
    • 2-Active P-core Ratio: 60X -> 58X (OCTVB)
    • 3-Active P-core Ratio: 60X -> 58X (OCTVB)
    • 4-Active P-core Ratio: 60X -> 58X (OCTVB)
    • 5-Active P-core Ratio: 60X -> 58X (OCTVB)
    • 6-Active P-core Ratio: 58X -> 56X (OCTVB)
  • Optimized AVX Frequency: Normal Use
  • Efficiency Core Ratio: AI Optimized
    • 1-Active E-core Ratio: 45X
    • 2-Active E-core Ratio: 45X
    • 3-Active E-core Ratio: 45X
    • 4-Active E-core Ratio: 44X
    • 5-Active E-core Ratio: 44X
    • 6-Active E-core Ratio: 42X
    • 7-Active E-core Ratio: 42X
    • 8-Active E-core Ratio: 42X
  • Per P-core Ratio Limit: 58X for all
  • Adaptive Voltage: 1.447V
  • Package Temperature Threshold: 90C

As you can see, AI Overclock provides a +1000 MHz increase of the maximum Turbo Boost maximum frequency. It also relies heavily on the OCTVB technology to squeeze the most performance out of the system.

Package Temperature Threshold

I briefly covered this feature in the Alder Lake launch video and SkatterBencher #25 with the Core i9-11900K.

This feature allows you to configure a maximum temperature for the CPU. The ASUS motherboard will track the CPU temperature during operation. Once the temperature exceeds your target temperature, the CPU frequency will be reduced. It does this not directly by adjusting the CPU ratio but by adjusting the Turbo Boost power limit parameters. By lowering the power limits, the Intel CPU will change the CPU ratio down on its own.

When you enable AI Overclocking, this feature is automatically enabled and set to 90 degrees Celsius.

BIOS Settings & Benchmark Results

Upon entering the BIOS

  • Switch to Advanced Mode
  • Go to the Ai Tweaker menu
  • Enter the Ai Overclocking Guide
  • Go through the guide, then click Enable AI
  • Set Ai Overclock Tuner to XMP II

Then save and exit the BIOS.

We re-ran the benchmarks and checked the performance increase compared to the default operation.

  • SuperPI 4M: +18.51%
  • Geekbench 5 (single): +19.71%
  • Geekbench 5 (multi): +23.35%
  • Cinebench R23 Single: +16.72%
  • Cinebench R23 Multi: +8.12%
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Single: +15.60%
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Multi: +10.30%
  • V-Ray 5: +10.84%
  • AI Benchmark: +7.02%
  • 3DMark Night Raid: +9.20%
  • CS:GO FPS Bench: +1.55%
  • Tomb Raider: +13.56%
  • Final Fantasy XV: +6.20%
13600k ai overclock benchmark performance

Here are the 3DMark CPU Profile scores.

  • CPU Profile 1 Thread: +15.87%
  • CPU Profile 2 Threads: +15.26%
  • CPU Profile 4 Threads: +13.87%
  • CPU Profile 8 Threads: +8.99%
  • CPU Profile 16 Threads: +6.68%
  • CPU Profile Max Threads: +8.20%
13600k ai overclock 3dmark cpu profile performance

With AI Overclocking, we increase the processor frequency significantly over the stock settings from 5.1 GHz to 5.8 GHz P-Cores. Therefore we expect a substantial performance uplift, which we see in the benchmark results. The performance uplift from AI Overclocking is surprisingly good. We have the best performance improvement of +23.35% in Geekbench 5.

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX2 enabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5288 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 4199 MHz with 1.147 volts. The average CPU temperature is 90 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 25.8 and 37.1 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 214.5 watts.

13600k ai overclock prime95 avx

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX disabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5459 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 4200 MHz with 1.224 volts. The average CPU temperature is 89 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 25.7 and 36.7 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 211.5 watts.

13600k ai overclock prime95 no avx

OC Strategy #3: Manual Overclock + XMP 2.0

In our third overclocking strategy, we will pursue a manual overclock. The approach is based mainly on tuning the Turbo Ratio configuration and adjusting the adaptive voltage.

Intel Turbo Ratios

Generally speaking, on Intel platforms, there are two ways to manually configure the CPU ratio: sync all cores or use turbo ratio configuration.

Sync All Cores sets a single fixed ratio applied to all cores. This is very much the historical way of Intel CPU overclocking. Turbo Ratio configuration allows us to modify the default Intel frequency specification and configure an overclock for various scenarios.

Before we go any further, there are three critical elements of understanding any Turbo Ratio configuration:

  1. You can configure the maximum allowed CPU core ratio for any number of active cores
  2. You can configure the maximum allowed CPU core ratio for a given CPU core
  3. The turbo ratio configuration for P-core and E-cores is independent.

To explain the first point, let’s take the default configuration of the 13600K. The 13600K has a total of 6 P-cores. Therefore we can configure the maximum allowed P-core ratio for when 1 P-core is active, when 2 P-cores are active, all the way up to when 6 P-cores are active. The standard configuration allows every P-Core to boost to 5.1 GHz when all cores are active.

In our overclock, we adjust the Turbo Ratio configuration to boost

  • to 6.2 GHz when up to 2 P-cores are active,
  • to 6.0 GHz when up to 4 P-cores are active, and
  • to 5.7 GHz when up to 6 P-cores are active.

To explain the second point, let’s consider the difference between the 13600K and 13700K default specifications. The 13600K has 6 identical P-cores with a maximum frequency of 5.1 GHz. The 13700K has 8 P-Cores, two of which can boost 100 MHz higher than the other six. Those cores are called the favored cores and are part of the Turbo Boost Max 3.0 Technology.

Let’s ignore the technology for now and focus on the fact that two cores can boost higher than the other cores. In my Rocket Lake launch article, I highlighted that Intel had introduced a new overclocking tool called Per Core Ratio Limit. This technology is also available on Raptor Lake. It allows us to set a maximum ratio for each P-core individually.

In our overclock, we set the P-core Ratio Limits per core as follows: P-cores 0 and 3 may boost up to 6.1 GHz, P-cores 1 and 5 may boost to 6.0 GHz, and P-cores 2 and 4 may boost to 5.9 GHz.  

If we combine point 1 and point 2, we can identify the following scenarios:

  • If 1 or 2 P-cores are active, every P-core will run at its configured per P-core ratio limit. That’s because the turbo ratio configuration allows a boost to 6.2 GHz.
  • If 3 or 4 P-cores are active, all P-cores will run at their ratio limit except for P-Core 0 and P-Core 3, which are limited to 6.0 GHz.
  • If P-cores 0 to 3 are active, then each P-core will run at the following frequency
    • P-Core 0: 6.0 GHz, limited by the turbo ratio configuration
    • P-Core 1: 6.0 GHz, limited by the turbo ratio configuration
    • P-Core 2: 5.9 GHz, limited by the per P-core ratio limit configuration
    • P-Core 3: 6.0 GHz, limited by the turbo ratio configuration
  • If 5 or 6 P-cores are active, all P-cores will be constrained by the turbo ratio configuration, which is limited to 5.7 GHz.

To explain the third point, again, let’s refer to the 13600K. The CPU has a total of six P-cores and eight E-cores. While the P-cores can boost up to 5.1 GHz, the E-cores can only boost up to 3.9 GHz.

The P-core rules for maximum allowed frequency can also be applied to the E-cores. However, with one major caveat: the E-core CPU ratio can only be controlled in groups of 4 E-cores. So, for the 13600K, since it has eight E-cores in total, we can configure the maximum allowed core ratio for a total of two groups of four E-cores. However, we can still configure the maximum allowed frequency for 1 active E-core up to 8 active E-cores.

We increase the E-core frequency from 3.9 GHz to 4.2 GHz in this OC Strategy.

Next, let’s have a look at the voltage configuration.

VccIA Voltage Rail

On Raptor Lake, the VccIA voltage rail drives the voltage for the CPU cores, P-core and E-core, and the Ring. That means a single voltage is used for all these parts of the CPU. How that voltage is configured is straightforward yet complex.

There are three key aspects to understanding how voltage is configured on Intel platforms: the CPU, the motherboard design, and the voltage regulator.

Let’s start with the CPU side of the story.

V/F Curves

An Intel CPU relies on many factory-fused voltage-frequency curves, or V/F curves, to regulate its dynamic compute performance behavior. A V/F curve describes the relationship between an operating frequency and the voltage required for that frequency. A lot of parts inside your CPU have a V/f curve, including those relevant to the VccIA voltage rail:

  • Each of the 6 P-cores
  • Each of the 2 E-core groups of 4 cores
  • The ring

In the case of the Core i5-13600K, the VccIA voltage rail is affected by no less than 9 different voltage-frequency curves.

Based on these V/F curves, to get a specific voltage provided via the VccIA voltage rail, the CPU issues an SVID request to the voltage controller. The VID requested is the highest among all the requested voltages according to every V/F curve affecting the voltage rail.

Let’s take an example:

The highest voltage requested according to the relevant V/F curves is 1.20V by P-Core 0. This will be the VID request to the voltage controller.

Here’s another example:

In this case, the highest voltage requested according to the relevant V/F curves is 1.15V by E-Core Group 0. This will be the SVID request to the voltage controller.

The goal of the SVID voltage request from the CPU to the voltage regulator is that the effective voltage at the CPU die is equal to the requested voltage. However, as overclockers and enthusiasts know very well, that’s not always the case. That’s because there are a lot of electrical components between the voltage regulator and the CPU die.

To avoid the voltage delivered to the CPU die being lower than the requested voltage, we have two main tools: (1) AC-DC loadline and (2) VRM loadline.

AC DC Loadline

Plenty has been said and written about the AC-DC voltage loadline, so I won’t cover it in detail here. The long story short is that the AC-DC loadline is designed to account for the electrical impedance from the motherboard design, including the VRM components, the PCB layout, and quality.

The impedance can significantly affect the actual voltage at the CPU die. To avoid too big a difference between the requested and effective voltage, we can adjust for this in the motherboard BIOS. The adjustment consists of informing the CPU of the motherboard impedance via the AC loadline setting so the CPU can request a higher voltage to the voltage regulator.

For example, suppose it is known that a 1.4V voltage output by the voltage controller, as requested by the CPU, will result in an effective voltage of 1.35V at the CPU die. In that case, the AC loadline can be configured such that the CPU requests 1.45V instead.

The VRM loadline

The VRM loadline setting determines how much the output voltage increases or decreases during a transient load. Transient means when the CPU goes from a low load to a high load or vice versa. Two parts of the VRM loadline are relevant for overclocking: Vdroop and Undershoot.

Vdroop is the decrease in voltage when the CPU goes from idle to load. You want your CPU to be stable in all scenarios, so knowing the lowest voltage the CPU will run at is very important. After all, if the voltage is too low, the overclock will be unstable.

Undershoot and its counterpart, overshoot, is a brief voltage spike that occurs when the CPU switches from idle to load or from load to idle. These spikes cannot be measured easily and usually require an expensive oscilloscope to detect. I highly recommend the ElmorLabs article titled VRM Load-Line Visualized to see a great picture of undershoot and overshoot in action.

While undershoot and overshoot are temporary spikes, an undershoot that’s too low will also cause instability.

By adjusting the VRM loadline, we can mitigate both the Vdroop and Undershoot. In practice, it often helps us reduce the voltage under high load, resulting in a lower temperature and possibly higher turbo boost frequency.

The choice of VRM loadline is not always straightforward, as it is primarily a function of testing on your own system. I found that for this specific OC Strategy, a loadline setting of Level 6 provided me with the best overall stability

Now that we know all this information let’s return to the core voltage.

Intel Adaptive Voltage Mode

There are two main ways of configuring the voltage for the CPU cores: override mode and adaptive mode.

  • Override mode specifies a single static voltage across all ratios. It is mainly used for extreme overclocking purposes where stability at high frequencies is the only consideration.
  • Adaptive mode is the standard mode of operation. In Adaptive Mode, the CPU relies on the V/F curves to set the appropriate voltage for the VccIA voltage rail.

Both override and adaptive mode settings can be configured via the CPU registers. So, in effect, we control the CPU VID request to the voltage controller. This is Intel’s intended way of overclocking.

Of course, most voltage controllers also allow independent configuration. For example, they enable us to configure a voltage offset to the requested voltage. It is often unclear from the motherboard BIOSes which method of setting the CPU core voltage we’re using when we type in the desired voltage. For the purpose of this guide, however, let’s ignore the capabilities of the voltage controllers and focus on Intel’s intended way of overclocking.

We can specify a voltage offset for override and adaptive modes. Of course, this doesn’t make much sense for override mode – if you set 1.35V with a +50mV offset, you could just set 1.40V – but it can be helpful in adaptive mode. The entire V/F curve can be offset by up to 500mV in both directions.

As I mentioned, Intel offers great granularity for tuning the many V/F curves inside the CPU. Let’s forget about the E-cores and Ring to keep things simple and assume a case where we set a global adaptive voltage for the CPU P-cores. Now let’s dig into what happens when we set a global adaptive voltage.

First, disregarding any user-set global or V/f point offsets, the adaptive voltage set in the BIOS is mapped against what’s called the “OC ratio.” The “OC Ratio” is the highest ratio configured for the CPU.

When you leave everything at default, the OC ratio is determined by the default maximum turbo ratio. In the case of the 13600K, that ratio is 51X. In the case of the 13900K, that ratio would be 58X, which is the Thermal Velocity Boost Frequency.

When you manually overclock, the OC ratio is the highest ratio you configure across all the various settings and options.

Second, specific rules govern what adaptive voltage can be set.

A) the voltage set for a given ratio n must be higher than or equal to the voltage set for ratio n-1.

Suppose our 13600K runs 51X at 1.20V. In that case, setting the adaptive voltage, mapped to 51X, lower than 1.20V, is pointless. 51X will always run at 1.20 or higher. Usually, BIOSes will allow you to configure lower values. However, the CPU’s internal mechanisms will override your configuration if it doesn’t follow the rules.

B) the adaptive voltage configured for any ratio below the maximum default turbo ratio will be ignored.

Take the same example of the 13600K, which is specified to run 51x at 1.20V. If you try to configure all cores to 48x and set 1.20V, the CPU will ignore this because it has its own factory-fused target voltage for all ratios up to 51X and will use this voltage. You can only change the voltage of the OC Ratio, which, as mentioned before, on the 13600K, is 51X and up.

C) for ratios between the OC Ratio and the next highest factory-fused V/f point, the voltage is interpolated between the set adaptive voltage and the factory-fused voltage.

Returning to our example of our 13600K specified to run 51X at 1.20V, let’s say we manually configure the OC ratio to be 58X at 1.40V. The target voltage for ratios 52X, 53X, 54X, 55X, 56X,  and 57X will now be interpolated between 1.20V and 1.40V.

So, in conclusion.

The adaptive voltage set in BIOS is mapped against the “OC Ratio.” Unless explicitly programmed, the OC Ratio is the highest ratio configured for the CPU across all settings, including by core usage, per core ratio limit, and OCTVB. The voltage for ratios lower than the OC ratio is set either by its factory-fused V/f point or, if there’s no V/f point, interpolated between the next and previous V/f point.

13600K V/F Curve Discussion

In SkatterBencher #31, I covered the Alder Lake V/F curve in detail. Since Raptor Lake is very similar to Alder Lake, we can follow the same procedure to extract the voltage-frequency curve for this Core i5-13600K processor.

In our overclocking example, we set the adaptive voltage to 1.475V. As explained, the adaptive voltage is mapped against the “OC Ratio,” and in this OC strategy, that’s 62X. As a result, the new voltage-frequency curve looks as follows.

Now that we have sorted out the P-cores, E-cores, and voltage, there are still a couple more settings to adjust.

AVX Negative Ratio Offset

AVX negative ratio offset is a feature that allows the CPU to reduce the operating ratio when AVX instructions are used. It is a valuable tool to achieve maximum performance for both SSE and AVX workloads. While AVX negative ratio offset has been on Intel CPUs for ages, since Alder Lake, there’s been a couple of changes in the behavior. Here are the key things to know:

  • First, on Raptor Lake, the AVX negative ratio offset is only applied to the P-cores. The E-core frequency is unaffected.
  • Second, by default, the maximum ratio during an AVX workload is the Turbo Boost 2.0 ratio. If you want an offset of 0, so AVX workload doesn’t reduce the frequency, you’ll need to manually set 0.
  • Third, the AVX negative offset is referenced against each core’s maximum ratio limit since Raptor Lake supports per P-core ratio control. This is important if you’re using the Per-Core Ratio Limit function to restrict the worst cores from boosting to the maximum frequency.
  • Lastly, Intel has changed how it flags an AVX workload. The effect is that some light AVX workloads will no longer trigger the AVX negative offset. We can demonstrate this new behavior using Y-cruncher.

We used the Y-cruncher component tester to test various AVX workloads on the 13700K. Four of the 6 pure AVX2 workloads trigger a frequency reduction when an AVX Negative Ratio is set. For the other two workloads, the frequency remains elevated.

Thermal Velocity Boost Voltage Optimizations

Thermal velocity boost is an Intel technology that exploits the fact that CPUs need less voltage to run a specific frequency when the operating temperature is lower. When this setting is enabled, the CPU automatically adjusts the voltage according to the operating temperature. As we want manual control over the operating voltage to ensure stability, it’s prudent to disable this function.

TjMax

Tjunction max, or TjMax, is the maximum thermal junction temperature allowed for a processor. If the operating temperature exceeds TjMax, internal thermal control mechanisms will reduce the operating frequency until the temperature is below TjMax.

The TjMax for Raptor Lake CPUs is 100 degrees Celsius; however, it can be manually increased to 115 degrees. In this OC strategy, I want to set the TjMax to 90 degrees Celsius to show a practical example that this feature can help you limit the maximum temperature

BIOS Settings & Benchmark Results

Upon entering the BIOS

  • Switch to Advanced Mode
  • Go to the Ai Tweaker menu
  • Set Ai Overclock Tuner to XMP II
  • Set ASUS MultiCore Enhancement to Enabled – Remove All Limits
  • Set Performance Core Ratio to By Core Usage
    • Set 1-Core and 2-Core Ratio Limit to 62
    • Set 3-Core and 4-Core Ratio Limit to 60
    • Set 5-Core and 6-Core Ratio Limit to 57
  • Enter the Specific Performance Core submenu
    • Set Performance Core0 and Core3 Specific Ratio Limit to 61
    • Set Performance Core1 and Core5 Specific Ratio Limit to 60
    • Set Performance Core2 and Core4 Specific Ratio Limit to 59
  • Leave the Specific Performance Core submenu
  • Set Efficient Core Ratio to Sync All Cores
    • Set ALL-Core Ratio limit to 42
  • Enter the AVX Related Controls submenu
    • Set AVX2 Ratio Offset to per-core Ratio Limit to User Specify
    • Set AVX2 Ratio Offset to 0
  • Leave the AVX Related Controls submenu
  • Enter the DIGI+ VRM submenu
    • Set CPU Load-line Calibration to Level 6
  • Leave the DIGI+ VRM submenu
  • Enter the Internal CPU Power Management submenu
    • Set Maximum CPU Core Temperature to 90
  • Leave the Internal CPU Power Management submenu
  • Enter the Thermal Velocity Boost submenu
    • Set TVB Voltage Optimizations to Disabled
  • Leave the Thermal Velocity Boost submenu
  • Set Global Core SVID Voltage to Adaptive Mode
    • Set Offset Mode Sign to +
    • Set Additional Turbo Mode CPU Core Voltage to 1.475

Then save and exit the BIOS.

We re-ran the benchmarks and checked the performance increase compared to the default operation.

  • SuperPI 4M: +18.97%
  • Geekbench 5 (single): +24.57%
  • Geekbench 5 (multi): +22.32%
  • Cinebench R23 Single: +19.52%
  • Cinebench R23 Multi: +10.46%
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Single: +19.27%
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Multi: +12.49%
  • V-Ray 5: +12.75%
  • AI Benchmark: +21.72%
  • 3DMark Night Raid: +9.66%
  • CS:GO FPS Bench: +1.57%
  • Tomb Raider: +13.56%
  • Final Fantasy XV: +6.01%
13600k manual overclock benchmark performance

Here are the 3DMark CPU Profile scores.

  • CPU Profile 1 Thread: +15.23%
  • CPU Profile 2 Threads: +13.94%
  • CPU Profile 4 Threads: +11.30%
  • CPU Profile 8 Threads: +6.93%
  • CPU Profile 16 Threads: +6.40%
  • CPU Profile Max Threads: +8.24%
13600k manual overclock 3dmark cpu profile performance

As we increase the P-core frequency by 800 to 1000 MHz over the default maximum boost frequency of 5.1 GHz, we expect a substantial increase in performance across the board. That’s precisely what we see with a maximum single-thread performance improvement of +24.57% and a maximum multi-thread performance improvement of 22.32%, both in Geekbench 5.

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX2 enabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5292 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 4200 MHz with 1.167 volts. The average CPU temperature is 90 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 25.3 and 35.5 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 210.9 watts.

13600k manual overclock prime95 avx

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX disabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5463 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 4200 MHz with 1.221 volts. The average CPU temperature is 89 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 25.3 and 35.5 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 207.9 watts.

13600k manual overclock prime95 no avx

OC Strategy #4: OCTVB + XMP 2.0

In our fourth and final overclocking strategy, we resort to advanced manual overclocking to squeeze more performance out of our system. We have two objectives:

  1. We want to use OCTVB to squeeze a little more frequency out of the chip and provide higher performance in light workloads
  2. We want to use Advanced Voltage Offset for the voltage configuration

OCTVB – OverClocking Thermal Velocity Boost

In 2018 Intel introduced Thermal Velocity Boost along with the Core i9-8950HK Coffee Lake mobile flagship processor, and it’s since been an indispensable feature on Intel Core processors.

Thermal Velocity Boost does two things.

  1. First, as already discussed, it decreases the operating voltage if the CPU temperature is below the TjMax.
  2. Two, it opportunistically increases the clock frequency above the Turbo Boost 2.0 and 3.0 frequencies based on how much the processor operates below its maximum temperature.

With the introduction of the Intel Cryo Cooling Technology in 2020, Intel opened up the TVB configuration to motherboard vendors. The feature is named OverClocking Thermal Velocity Boost, or OCTVB for short.

The easiest way to think of OCTVB is limiting, or clipping, the maximum allowed CPU ratio based on the CPU operating temperature. The hotter the CPU, the more you clip the CPU ratio. OCTVB is based on the by core usage Turbo Ratio configuration. For each number of active cores, you can define two temperature points, each with a unique number of “down-bins’. A down-bin is essentially the number of ratios you want to drop.

13600k octvb configuration

Let’s take the configuration of this OC Strategy.

When 1 P-core is active, the base ratio is 62X, so the frequency will be 6.2 GHz. However, when the temperature is 70 degrees Celsius, the ratio is clipped by 1X. That means the maximum ratio is now 61X.

When all 6 P-cores are active, the base ratio is 60X, so the frequency will be 6.0 GHz. However, when the temperature is 70 degrees Celsius, the ratio is clipped by 1X. That means the maximum ratio is now 59X. When the temperature hits 90 degrees Celsius, the ratio is clipped once more by 1X. So the resulting maximum ratio is now 58X.

Note that we have TjMax configured at the default of 100 degrees Celsius. So beyond 100 degrees Celsius, the CPU will automatically reduce the frequency to stay within the thermal limit.

As you can see, the OCTVB function configures the ratio offsets on a by core usage basis. However, a little-known secret is that since Rocket Lake, there’s also a Per Core Ratio OCTVB. However, this functionality is not exposed to the end user. If it were, you could, in theory, configure a thermal clipping configuration for each core individually and by the number of active cores.

Note that OCTVB is only available for the P-cores and not for the E-cores.

Testing an OCTVB configuration is notoriously tricky because you can’t simply stress-test as you’d typically do. So, most of OCTVB validation is just running your benchmark test suite to see if there are any instabilities. Still, there is one technique we can use to get a rough idea of how many extra bins we can get with lower temperatures. That’s by relying on the Thermal Velocity Boost Voltage Optimizations I mentioned briefly in the previous OC Strategy.

When the voltage optimizations are enabled, we can use HWiNFO to track the CPU VID request as the CPU is heating up. In my case, I let the system idle and unplugged the pump to let the temperature rise gradually. The data collected shows an apparent increase in minimum, maximum, and average VID at a given temperature. The difference is about 50mV for 60 degrees Celsius.

13600k tvb voltage optimizations

When running a regression, the voltage decreases at about 1.2mV per degree Celsius. Now we can combine this with the information from our V/F curve. From the V/F Curve we use in OC Strategy #3, we find a 27.5mV step for each ratio increase between 51X and 62X.

So, we have an increase of 27.5mV per CPU ratio and a decrease of 1.2mV per degree Celsius. Thus, we can derive that at a given voltage, we can increase the ratio for every 23 degrees Celsius reduction in temperature.

Of course, this is a rough estimate, and nothing beats real-world testing. But hopefully, it can give you some idea of how to approach or get started with OCTVB tuning.

Advanced Voltage Offset – V/F Points

Advanced Voltage Offset builds on the Adaptive Voltage Mode we covered earlier in this guide. Generally speaking, there are two ways to approach dynamic voltage configuration on Intel platforms: adaptive voltage or advanced voltage offset. You can use these methods separately or together.

As I explained before, when we set an adaptive voltage, we map it against the OC Ratio, which is the highest of all ratios set. In this OC strategy, the OC Ratio will be 62X. The voltage for lower ratios is then interpolated between the voltage mapped against the OC Ratio and the next factory-fused V/F point, which for the 13600K is 51X.

Advanced voltage offset, or V/F Points, is an extension of the Adaptive Voltage as it exposes some of the points on the V/f curve to the end-user and allows for manual adjustment of these points. The amount of V/f points is not architectural and can differ between SKUs.

The primary purpose of the Advanced Voltage Offset is to provide end-users with the ability to under-volt their CPUs at specific parts of the V/f curve. In addition to undervolting, this feature also allows overvolting.

The Advanced Voltage Offset function is commonly used in two ways.

  1. First, you configure a positive voltage offset for the highest V/f point. This helps achieve a higher single-threaded boost frequency.
  2. Second, you configure a negative voltage offset for the second-highest V/f point. This helps achieve lower voltage for all-core boost, which results in a lower temperature in all-core boost, and thus potential additional overclocking headroom.

On Raptor Lake, there are 15 distinct voltage-frequency points. However, only points one to eleven are used. Furthermore, some points can be copies of other points. On the 13600K, the V/F points are as follows:

  • V/F Point 1: 8X
  • V/F Point 2: 14X
  • V/F Point 3: 24X
  • V/F Point 4: 34X
  • V/F Point 5: 43X
  • V/F Point 6: 48X
  • V/F Point 7: 49X
  • V/F Point 8: 50X
  • V/F Point 9: 51X
  • V/F Point 10: 51X
  • V/F Point 11: 51X

V/F Point 9 matches the Turbo Boost 2.0 frequency, and V/F Point 11 matches the OC ratio. V/F Point 10 is a copy of V/F Point 9.

13600k vf points

Ideally, we would now adjust the V/F Curve with the following modifications:

  • V/F Points 9: offset with a negative value to undervolt the CPU. This will reduce the effective voltage when the CPU reduces the frequency in extreme workloads, resulting in higher average frequencies
  • V/F Point 11: offset with a positive value to overvolt the CPU. This will enable additional frequency headroom, allowing us to push the CPU frequency higher in single-threaded or light workloads.

Note that V/F Points 9 and 11, mapped to ratios 51X and 62X in this OC Strategy, effectively control the voltage for 52X to 62X. The tricky part is that the V/F curve slope, as determined by those two V/F points, must accommodate light and heavy as well as single and multi-threaded workloads.

If your single-core frequency doesn’t need high voltage, the too-gentle slope may not accommodate high-frequency, light, multi-core workloads. If you need sufficient voltage for all-core workloads at high frequency, then the too-steep slope may set a too-high voltage for the single-core frequency.

Lastly, unfortunately, it looks like the implementation of the V/F Points is not mature yet. There are quite a few issues when using it for a daily overclock. Two problems, in particular, can be frustrating:

  1. Sometimes the V/F Points don’t work correctly in combination with 100 MHz BCLK. An easy workaround is to have the BCLK frequency slightly lower or higher than 100 MHz.
  2. Sometimes programming V/F Point 9 conflicts with V/F Point 10. The easy workaround is to always program both V/F Points to the same value.
  3. Sometimes motherboards have auto-rules that automatically set an adaptive voltage when high CPU ratios are set. It’s important to know that V/F Point 11 is added to the adaptive voltage. If you’re not careful and leave the adaptive voltage set at Auto, you may end up with really high voltage. The easy workaround here is to manually set the adaptive voltage.

To return to my example, I set the Adaptive Voltage to 1.184V and used the following advanced voltage offsets:

  • V/F Point 9: 51X, +125mV
  • V/F Point 10: 51X, +125mV
  • V/F Point 11: 62X, +315mV
13600k octvb vf points

That gives the following funny-looking voltage frequency curve.

13600k octvb vf curve

BIOS Settings & Benchmark Results

Upon entering the BIOS

  • Switch to Advanced Mode
  • Go to the Ai Tweaker menu
  • Set Ai Overclock Tuner to XMP II
  • Set ASUS MultiCore Enhancement to Enabled – Remove All Limits
  • Set Performance Core Ratio to By Core Usage
    • Set 1-Core and 2-Core Ratio Limit to 62
    • Set 3-Core and 4-Core Ratio Limit to 61
    • Set 5-Core and 6-Core Ratio Limit to 60
  • Enter the Specific Performance Core submenu
    • Set Performance Core0 and Core1 Specific Ratio Limit to 62
    • Set Performance Core2 and Core4 Specific Ratio Limit to 59
    • Set Performance Core3 and Core5 Specific Ratio Limit to 61
  • Leave the Specific Performance Core submenu
  • Set Efficient Core Ratio to Sync All Cores
    • Set ALL-Core Ratio limit to 42
  • Enter the AVX Related Controls submenu
    • Set AVX2 Ratio Offset to per-core Ratio Limit to User Specify
    • Set AVX2 Ratio Offset to 0
  • Leave the AVX Related Controls submenu
  • Enter the DIGI+ VRM submenu
    • Set CPU Load-line Calibration to Level 5
  • Leave the DIGI+ VRM submenu
  • Enter the Internal CPU Power Management submenu
    • Set Regulate Frequency by above Threshold to Disabled
  • Leave the Internal CPU Power Management submenu
  • Enter the Thermal Velocity Boost submenu
    • Set TVB Voltage Optimizations to Disabled
    • Set Overclocking TVB to Enabled
      • Set 1-Core to 6-Core Active to Enabled
      • For each Core Active, set Temperature A to 70
      • For each Core Active, set Negative Ratio Offset A to User Specify
      • For each Core Active, set Ratio Offset A to 1
      • For 1-Core and 2-Core Active, set Temperature B to 115
      • For the other Core Active, set Temperature B to 90
      • For each Core Active, set Negative Ratio Offset B to User Specify
      • For 1-Core and 2-Core Active, set Ratio Offset B to 0
      • For the other Core Active, set Ratio Offset B to 1
  • Leave the Thermal Velocity Boost submenu
  • Enter the V/F Point Offset submenu
    • Set Offset Mode Sign 9 to +
    • Set V/F Point 9 Offset to 0.125
    • Set Offset Mode Sign 10 to +
    • Set V/F Point 10 Offset to 0.125
    • Set Offset Mode Sign 11 to +
    • Set V/F Point 11 Offset to 0.315
  • Leave the V/F Point Offset submenu
  • Set Global Core SVID Voltage to Adaptive Mode
    • Set Offset Mode Sign to +
    • Set Additional Turbo Mode CPU Core Voltage to 1.184

Then save and exit the BIOS.

We re-ran the benchmarks and checked the performance increase compared to the default operation.

  • SuperPI 4M: +20.55%
  • Geekbench 5 (single): +25.69%
  • Geekbench 5 (multi): +24.97%
  • Cinebench R23 Single: +19.62%
  • Cinebench R23 Multi: +10.09%
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Single: +19.51%
  • CPU-Z V17.01.64 Multi: +12.90%
  • V-Ray 5: +13.72%
  • AI Benchmark: +20.71%
  • 3DMark Night Raid: +11.32%
  • CS:GO FPS Bench: +1.69%
  • Tomb Raider: +14.12%
  • Final Fantasy XV: +6.99%
13600k octvb benchmark performance

Here are the 3DMark CPU Profile scores.

  • CPU Profile 1 Thread: +19.40%
  • CPU Profile 2 Threads: +17.76%
  • CPU Profile 4 Threads: +14.67%
  • CPU Profile 8 Threads: +11.39%
  • CPU Profile 16 Threads: +7.19%
  • CPU Profile Max Threads: +9.57%
13600k octvb 3dmark cpu profile

While this OC strategy allows us to squeeze more frequency out of our CPU, it won’t improve the performance in all scenarios because it’s configured through OCTVB. In fact, the performance improvements should only appear in light workloads such as the 3DMark CPU profile, which doesn’t push the CPU to the TjMax. We see the highest performance improvement of +25.69% in Geekbench 5 single.

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX2 enabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5337 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 4200 MHz with 1.230 volts. The average CPU temperature is 100 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 25.5 and 37.6 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 247.2 watts.

13600k octvb prime95 avx

When running Prime 95 Small FFTs with AVX disabled, the average CPU P-core clock is 5549 MHz, and the average CPU E-core clock is 4200 MHz with 1.287 volts. The average CPU temperature is 100 degrees Celsius. The ambient and water temperature is 25.5 and 36.4 degrees Celsius. The average CPU package power is 243.0 watts.

13600k octvb prime95 no avx

Intel Core i5-13600K: Conclusion

Alright, let us wrap this up.

The Core i5-13600K overclocking experience was, in a single word, awesome. Achieving a one gigahertz overclock on a modern CPU is something you don’t often see. It is a perfect illustration of the incredible overclocking potential of Raptor Lake.

However, the tuning process is not as straightforward as I would like. That’s because there’s only one user-configurable V/F point for ratios above the maximum default ratio. This gives few options to tune the voltage for the ratios between our maximum user-configured ratio of 62X and the maximum default ratio of 51X. That makes it challenging to get the voltage setting right for the wide range of dynamic workload scenarios our CPU is subject to.

However, I want to be clear: the minor downsides fade away compared to the significant upsides. Raptor Lake is a fantastic overclocking platform. I’m sure enthusiasts will find joy in pushing these CPUs to their limit.

Anyway, that’s all for today! I want to thank my Patreon supporters for supporting my work. As per usual, if you have any questions or comments, feel free to drop them in the comment section below. 

See you next time!

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9 thoughts on “SkatterBencher #51: Intel Core i5-13600K Overclocked to 6200MHz

  1. Etern

    Any recommendation on how to get a 98 SP 13600k like yourself?

    1. Pieter

      Probably the best way is to ask around on overclocking forums or discord channels and see if anyone wants to part ways with their chip.

  2. Leo Grande

    Hello there,

    first of thank you for your great guide and overview. It helped my deepen my understanding a lot.
    I am currently in the process of overclocking my 13600K and am hitting 5.7 GHz with 1.32 V at load, which I am happy with. However, because I have only limited cooling (240 AIO) in Mutli-Core-Workloads of course goes into thermal throttle, which is OK. To increase the performance in this scenario, I would like to adjust the V/F curve to such a degree as to undervolt the CPU when running at 48x/49x/50x (and by that also adjusting voltages between OC ratio and 50x).
    Before I had the voltage running on Auto. In this process I noticed that the voltage I get doesnt really make sense. I have the VCore set to Adaptive now at 1.2 V. For the V/F curve I have so form of undervolt for 48/49/50 (eg -25 mV) and some overvolt for the oc ratio (for me +75 mV). Yet, with a single core workload the VCore is running at 1.32 V and with a all core workload it’s running at 50x and at 1.26 V. However, with your given tables the voltage with at OC ratio should be around 1.275 V (minus a bit for the VDROOP, LLC is set to “Normal”) [1.2 V OC ratio voltage +75 mV V/F 11 offset] and for 50x around 1.1 V [1.137 V -25 mV].
    I am reading the voltage with HWinfo and/or Intel XTU. The setup is a Gigabyte Z690 Aorus Elite DDR4 with 32 GB 3600 CL16 ram. The baseclock is set to 100.1 MHz.
    Can you help me understand my wierd voltages? Thank you in advance.

    1. Leo Grande

      Also I have a question about what you wrote:
      “Suppose our 13600K runs 51X at 1.20V. In that case, setting the adaptive voltage, mapped to 51X, lower than 1.20V, is pointless. 51X will always run at 1.20 or higher. Usually, BIOSes will allow you to configure lower values. However, the CPU’s internal mechanisms will override your configuration if it doesn’t follow the rules.”
      Yet, later you set the Adaptive Voltage to 1.184 V. “To return to my example, I set the Adaptive Voltage to 1.184V and used the following advanced voltage offsets:…”
      Why would you set it to something lower than 1.2 V, when you said earlier that it wouldn’t do anything and will be ignored by the CPU?
      Thank you.

      1. Pieter

        Great question! I should’ve been more clear here.

        The reason why I set 1.184V adaptive voltage is to prevent the motherboard auto-rules from setting it. This ASUS motherboard would automatically adjust the adaptive voltage if the user manually sets the Turbo Ratios. However, I choose to control the voltage using the Advanced Voltage Offset (+315mV for VFP11). If I didn’t set the adaptive voltage, the motherboard auto-rule would set it to something much higher (e.g. 1.3V) and then my actual voltage would be 1.300 + 0.315.

        Instead, the voltage I set for the OC Ratio is 1.184 + 0.315.

    2. Leo Grande

      First of, sorry for all the spelling mistakes, it was a bit late.
      Secondly, I missunderstood how V/F-points work and thought that they would be the same for every CPU of the same type.
      Last, I measured the V/F-points for my P-cores, E-Cores and ring and saw that the E-Cores and ring had relativly high values for the stock multipliers. Because of that the voltage couldn’t drop down, even when the p-cores needed less. You wrote about this in SkatterBencher #52. I made a voltage offset for e-cores and ring and it seems to work now.
      Thank you again.

    3. Pieter

      Hi Leo,

      First of all, thank you for the kind words! Second, I read your question and you’re right about pretty much everything! I think the part you’re missing is the AC loadline.

      Your calculations are correct if you assume the AC loadline is configured to the lowest value of 0.01 (which GIGABYTE typically reports as “1”). If ACLL=0.01, it means the VID request from the CPU to the voltage controller will follow the V/F curve precisely. Assuming the factory-fused voltage for 51X is equal to or lower than 1.275V, in your case, that would be 1.200 + 0.075 for 51X. However, if AC loadline is set higher (i.e 0.10) then the VID request will increase as well. That’s how you can end up with a voltage higher than the voltage-frequency curve.

      I talked a little about the AC LL & VRM LLC for Gigabyte motherboards in my 13900K overclocking guide. From my experience, the typical configuration has pretty high AC LL which would align with the behavior you’re seeing https://skatterbencher.com/2023/01/01/skatterbencher-52-intel-core-i9-13900k-p-core-overclocked-to-6500mhz/.

      1. Leo Grande

        Holy moly,
        to get an answere from the man himself within days is positively insane.
        The fact that most of your posts have no comments and people are discussing in forums having no clue makes zero sense to me.
        I just stumbled across you looking for oc information and think the quality is among the highest you can find in this regard. The fact that someone breaking the 9GHz record with Elmor and the asus team and taking time making these extensive guides (and even answering questions) will really take of in the future imo.
        A minor point for improvement in your guides could be to be more clear about that the settings are only your personal ones. For some points it was obvious that they were specific, for others it was not directly obvious to me (personnaly!) (as with the V/F points). Of course, you report in other articles that these points are specific (e.g. V/F-curve deep dive) but it needs a bit more research. To transform the guides from “how to get the most out of my processor” to “how to get the most out of a CPU of type x”, maybe you could add in your step by step guide that you should e.g. measure V/F-curves at this point, or find stable frequencies for each P-core etc at some other point).
        I understand that the target audience of your articles is not someone looking for their first piece of information and this being the first and only source, but at the same time I think that a guide less extensive than yours makes little sense.
        I totally understand that it would take even more of your time and this could be actively something that you don’t want to do, but I thought I’d let you know my feedback still.

        I will look into the AC loadline in the future, the topic seemed a bit dearing to me and I left in on auto until now.

        Also something I wanted to ask you is your opinion on Intel XTU. I found it to be very time effective for the V/F-curves because you don’t need to restart the computer for every clock/core, but to what end do you use it (or other software) to find the best settings and then punch them in the bios in the end.
        Because of my situation with the relativly high SVIDs of ring and e-cores explained in my comment earlier, I had to do voltage offsets for both of them that dont seem to be possible in the bios but only in XTU. However I dislike the idea of my 24/7 settings relying on XTU starting uo every time and changing my settings.
        Because my motherboard doesn’t seem to support low and high gear for the cache, my plan is to have the voltage offset in XTU and downbin the the ring with a relatively tight min/max ratio (eg 43-47) to have somewhat of the same effect (keeping it at 47 for 5.7GHz and 1,32V and at 43 for 5.2 GHz at about 1.18 V).

        1. Pieter

          Thanks for the kind words, Leo!

          The goal for my guides is that anyone (beginner or expert) can rely on just my guide and use it to tune their CPU. That’s why I include the low effort strategies in the beginning and why I spend a lot of time on explaining what’s behind the settings.

          It’s hard to separate what settings are specifically for my system and which aren’t, because pretty much all settings are system specific. One could argue even enabling XMP is system specific since not all CPUs will run every XMP speed stably. So I just try to focus on showing the process and assume people will try the settings rather than copy the settings. That said I think it happens a lot that people just copy and see if it works 🙂

          As for your suggestion for more practical how-to guides: it’s been on my to-do list for a long time. The truth is that I just don’t have enough time at the moment to also create that type of content. Maybe if the revenue stream grows and I can bring on additional staff :).

          Regarding XTU: I’m with you that I prefer to have my settings configured in the BIOS so I don’t have to rely on software to set the OC. While I don’t use XTU that often, it’s definitely a useful tool to do testing.

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